Undesirable browning colour in the frying process is still a matter of concern due to health aspects, especially its carcinogenicity. Indeed, acrylamide, a toxin formed during potato frying process, https://datingranking.net/crossdresser-dating/ is known as a potential carcinogen (Friedman, 2003 ) and mutagen (Segerback et al., 1995 ). Consequently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) had classified acrylamide in Class 2A as a probable human carcinogen (IARC, 1994 ). The formation of acrylamide in carbohydrate-rich foods generally occurs, when heated at high temperatures (over 120°C) under limited humid conditions. It is mainly due to a Maillard reaction which involves reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and an amino acid asparagine (most abundant amino acid in potato). It is important to note that sucrose can be hydrolyzed through acid, enzymatic or thermal treatment acting as a precursor for the formation of reducing sugars (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2009 ; Stadler et al., 2002 ). Reducing sugars are considered to be a limiting factor for acrylamide formation despite the presence of amino acid precursor free asparagine, during the processing of potato products in excess of heat. In order to restrict the formation of acrylamide to low levels, the content of reducing sugars should not exceed 100 mg/100 g FW (Kumar et al.). Moreover, small size tuber (<50-mm size) contains more acrylamide content (322 ppb) because of a high amount of reducing sugar as compared to the large size tubers (>50-mm size) which possess 148 ppb (Po et al., 2018 ).
Although it are reduced as compared to maize and you may kidney beans, it produced much more protein for each unit planting town when compared with cereals
Because the basic profile regarding acrylamide inside the restaurants from inside the 2002 (Swedish Federal Dinner Management, 2002 ), this new medical area mobilized and you can been major services to minimize so it mutagen because of the involving the food world to grow minimization strategies. You to method will be to establish and make use of SNP-built molecular indicators toward set of potato variety having low cutting glucose or sucrose and you will free asparagine account for the a huge-level potato breeding program (Fischer ainsi que al., 2013 ; Li ainsi que al., 2013 ; Schreiber ainsi que al., 2014 ). Unit markers offer a very important possibility to speeds choice for plant breeders in order to develop new potato cultivars with ideal processing high quality (minimal cutting glucose and 100 % free asparagine, high lifeless matter content (DMC), high specific-gravity and you can starch content). These types of characteristics is actually polygenic, therefore GWAS based on high-occurrence genome-broad markers might possibly be successful for dissecting this type of state-of-the-art characteristics inside the potato.
The fresh new healthy protein blogs out of potato ranged between step one and you can 2.95 grams/a hundred grams into the new pounds base. Also, potato proteins is considered as high quality as a consequence of the fresh new presence of methionine, lysine, tryptophan and you will threonine (Lutaladio & Castaldi, 2009 ).
Tuber along with adds up steroidal glycoalkaloids (?-chaconine and you can ?-solanine with their aglycone types eg solasodine and you may solanidine) which might be essential for plant resistance to pathogens and you can insects however, toxic in order to humans (Friedman mais aussi al
Potatoes also contain secondary metabolites such as carotenoids (especially xanthophylls) and anthocyanins, which are known as dietary antioxidants and may play major roles in preventing human diseases related to ageing, cancer, obesity and heart attack, which benefits health. The carotenoids (varied from yellow to orange colours) and anthocyanins (red and purple colours) are the two most valuable colouring pigments in potato. Carotenoid amounts and types in tubers exhibit a large variation and are positively correlated with tuber peel and the flesh colour (de Haan Et Al., 2009 ; Sulli et al., 2017 ). The carotenoid contents of white flesh potatoes are generally low (<100 ?g/100 g fresh weight), contrasting to higher amounts in the yellow-fleshed varieties (about 560 ?g/100 g FW; Nesterenko & Sink, 2003 ). A diploid germplasm of Solanum showed carotenoid concentrations of more than 2,000 ?g/100 g FW with intense yellow to near orange flesh colour. The primary tuber carotenoids in potato are lutein, zeaxanthin and violaxanthin, although some studies (Andre et al., 2007 ; Bonierbale et al., 2009 ) have also reported the presence of beta-carotene (precursor of provitamin A activity). The relative content of ?-carotene in cv. 'Agria' (yellow flesh) represented 2% of total carotenoids (Lachman et al., 2016 ). White, yellow and orange tuber flesh colours are mainly due to the presence of carotenoids (xanthophylls and beta-carotene; Van Eck, 2007 ). Moreover, antioxidant activity and various phenolic contents are also associated with tuber skin and flesh colour. It is a wrong perception that tuber flesh colour is associated with starch content. In fact, the change in flesh colour of tuber depends on the concentration of carotenoids, not on the starch content. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the SNP markers associated with tuber flesh/skin colour, carotenoids and starch for genetic gains in potato keeping in view the consumer preferability (Ah-hen et al., 2012 ). , 2005 ).